Fakeroot feature


The fakeroot feature allows an unprivileged user to run a container with the appearance of running as root. Apptainer does this in different ways, depending on what is available on the host:

  1. If the host is set up to map the current user via /etc/subuid and /etc/subgid mapping files, Apptainer will use that method first. This is also commonly referred to as “rootless mode” and is the method used for example by Podman. It is the most complete emulation but it requires administrator setup as described in the admin guide. It also requires some elevated privilege assistance on the host as described there, which means that it will not be able to run nested inside another container that disallows elevating privileges, as Apptainer does. Those elevated privileges on the host come from either a setuid-root install of Apptainer or via the host newuidmap and newgidmap commands.

  2. Otherwise if user namespaces are available, Apptainer will map only the root user id to the original unprivileged user. This method is sometimes called a “root-mapped user namespace”. Since this method is not as complete an emulation as rootless mode, an INFO message showing it is happening is displayed.

  3. If the “fakeroot” command is available on the host, Apptainer will use it in addition to a root-mapped user namespace. This command fakes root privileges on file manipulation, telling programs that operations that would succeed as root have succeeded even though they really haven’t. This is useful for avoiding errors when building containers or when adding packages to a writable container, because many package installations attempt to do additional setup that only works as root. When the fakeroot command is used, an INFO message is displayed. The combination of a root-mapped user namespace with the fakeroot command allows most package installations to work, but the fakeroot command is bound in from the host so if the host libc library is of a very different vintage than the corresponding container library the fakeroot command can fail. If that situation happens it can be worth trying to run apptainer under the unshare -r command which is essentially the same thing as running in a root-mapped user namespace; in that case Apptainer will not try to run the fakeroot command even if it is in the user’s PATH.

  4. If user namespaces are not available but Apptainer has been installed with setuid-root and also the “fakeroot” command is available, then the fakeroot command will be run by itself. This allows some package installations to succeed but others will still fail; it is not as complete an emulation because the root-mapped user namespace causes the kernel to allow bypassing restrictions on files that are actually owned by the original user on the host, things that the fakeroot command cannot do by itself. When used in combination with --overlay or --writable-tmpfs then this mode requires the container image to be a sandbox.

As mentioned above, the “rootless” fakeroot mode is the most complete emulation. That mode has almost the same administrative rights as root but only inside the container and the requested namespaces, which means that this user:

  • can set different user/group ownership for files or directories they own

  • can change user/group identity with su/sudo commands when starting as the fake root user

In addition, the first three modes above may have full privileges inside the requested network namespace (see below).



A “fake root” user can never access or modify files and directories for which they don’t already have access or rights on the host filesystem, so a “fake root” user won’t be able to access root-only host files such as /etc/shadow or the host /root directory.

Additionally, all files or directories created by the “fake root” user are owned by root:root inside the container but as user:group outside of the container.

Let’s consider the following example. In this case “user” is authorized to use the rootless mode fakeroot feature and can use 65536 UIDs starting at 131072 (same thing for GIDs).

UID inside container

UID outside container

0 (root)

1000 (user)

1 (daemon)

131072 (non-existent)

2 (bin)

131073 (non-existent)



This means that if the “fake root” user creates a file under a bin user in the container, this file will be owned by 131073:131073 outside of the container. The responsibility relies on the administrator to ensure that there is no overlap with any user’s UID/GID on the system.


Normally the kernel prevents unprivileged users from connecting to ports below 1024, and the ping command requires a setcap capability in order to work on the network. Apptainer allows overriding these restrictions when all of the following conditions are true:

  1. Apptainer is installed with suid mode enabled

  2. Network namespaces are enabled

  3. The -net option is used

  4. The user is listed in /etc/subuid and so can use rootless mode

  5. The --fakeroot option is used

If those conditions are true, the user has full network privileges in a dedicated container network. Inside the container network they can bind on privileged ports below 1024, use ping, manage firewall rules, listen to traffic, etc. Anything done in this dedicated network won’t affect the host network. The ports inside the dedicated network can be mapped to other ports on the host with the --network-args="portmap" option.


Of course an unprivileged user can not map host ports below 1024 by using for example: --network-args="portmap=80:80/tcp"


You can work as a fake root user inside a container by using the --fakeroot or -f option.

The --fakeroot option is available with the following apptainer commands:

  • shell

  • exec

  • run

  • instance start

  • build

The option is automatically implied when doing a build as an unprivileged user.


Depending on the method of “fake root” used, an unprivileged user can build an image from a definition file with few restrictions. Some bootstrap methods that require creation of block devices (like /dev/null) may not always work correctly with “fake root”. With the rootles mode “fake root”, Apptainer uses seccomp filters to give programs the illusion that block device creation succeeded. This appears to work with yum bootstraps and may work with other bootstrap methods, although debootstrap is known to not work.

If only the fakeroot command is used for “fake root” mode (because no user namespaces are available, in suid mode), then building a container also implies the --fix-perms option, because otherwise directories created may not be writable by the creating user.


Build from a definition file:

(fakeroot is implied)

apptainer build /tmp/test.sif /tmp/test.def

Add package to a writable overlay

mkdir /tmp/test.overlay
apptainer exec --fakeroot --overlay /tmp/test.overlay /tmp/test.sif yum -y install openssh

Ping from container:

(when the Network conditions above are met)

apptainer exec --fakeroot --net docker://alpine ping -c1

HTTP server:

(when the Network conditions above are met)

apptainer run --fakeroot --net --network-args="portmap=8080:80/tcp" -w docker://nginx