Persistent Overlays

Persistent overlay directories allow you to overlay a writable file system on an immutable read-only container for the illusion of read-write access. You can run a container and make changes, and these changes are kept separately from the base container image.


A persistent overlay is a directory or file system image that “sits on top” of your immutable SIF container. When you install new software or create and modify files the overlay will store the changes.

If you want to use a SIF container as though it were writable, you can create a directory, an ext3 file system image, or embed an ext3 file system image in SIF to use as a persistent overlay. Then you can specify that you want to use the directory or image as an overlay at runtime with the --overlay option, or --writable if you want to use the overlay embedded in SIF.

If you want to make changes to the image, but do not want them to persist, use the --writable-tmpfs option. This stores all changes in an in-memory temporary filesystem which is discarded as soon as the container finishes executing.

You can use persistent overlays with the following commands:

  • run

  • exec

  • shell

  • instance.start


To use a persistent overlay, you must first have a container.

$ sudo apptainer build ubuntu.sif library://ubuntu

File system image overlay

Apptainer provides a command apptainer overlay create to create persistent overlay images. You can create a single EXT3 overlay image or adding a EXT3 writable overlay partition to an existing SIF image.


dd and mkfs.ext3 must be installed on your system. Additionally mkfs.ext3 must support -d option in order to create an overlay directory tree usable by a regular user.

For example, to create a 1 GiB overlay image:

$ apptainer overlay create --size 1024 /tmp/ext3_overlay.img

To add a 1 GiB writable overlay partition to an existing SIF image:

$ apptainer overlay create --size 1024 ubuntu.sif


It is not possible to add a writable overlay partition to a signed, encrypted SIF image or if the SIF image already contain a writable overlay partition.

apptainer overlay create also provides an option --create-dir to create additional directories owned by the calling user, it can be specified multiple times to create many directories. This is particularly useful when you need to make a directory writable by your user.

So for example:

$ apptainer build /tmp/nginx.sif docker://nginx
$ apptainer overlay create --size 1024 --create-dir /var/cache/nginx /tmp/nginx.sif
$ echo "test" | apptainer exec /tmp/nginx.sif sh -c "cat > /var/cache/nginx/test"

Directory overlay

A directory overlay is simpler to use than a filesystem image overlay, but a directory of modifications to a base container image cannot be transported or shared as easily as a single overlay file.


For security reasons, you must be root to use a bare directory as an overlay. ext3 file system images can be used as overlays without root privileges.

Create a directory as usual:

$ mkdir my_overlay

The example below shows the directory overlay in action.

$ sudo apptainer shell --overlay my_overlay/ ubuntu.sif

Apptainer ubuntu.sif:~> mkdir /data

Apptainer ubuntu.sif:~> chown user /data

Apptainer ubuntu.sif:~> apt-get update && apt-get install -y vim

Apptainer ubuntu.sif:~> which vim

Apptainer ubuntu.sif:~> exit

Overlay embedded in SIF

It is possible to embed an overlay image in the SIF file that holds a container. This allows the read-only container image and your modifications to it to be managed as a single file. In order to do this, you must first create a file system image:

$ dd if=/dev/zero of=overlay.img bs=1M count=500 && \
    mkfs.ext3 overlay.img

Then, you can add the overlay to the SIF image using the sif functionality of Apptainer.

$ apptainer sif add --datatype 4 --partfs 2 --parttype 4 --partarch 2 --groupid 1 ubuntu_latest.sif overlay.img

Below is the explanation what each parameter means, and how it can possibly affect the operation:

  • datatype determines what kind of an object we attach, e.g. a definition file, environment variable, signature.

  • partfs should be set according to the partition type, e.g. SquashFS, ext3, raw.

  • parttype determines the type of partition. In our case it is being set to overlay.

  • partarch must be set to the architecture against you’re building. In this case it’s amd64.

  • groupid is the ID of the container image group. In most cases there’s no more than one group, therefore we can assume it is 1.

All of these options are documented within the CLI help. Access it by running apptainer sif add --help.

After you’ve completed the steps above, you can shell into your container with the --writable option.

$ sudo apptainer shell --writable ubuntu_latest.sif

Final note

You will find that your changes persist across sessions as though you were using a writable container.

$ apptainer shell --overlay my_overlay/ ubuntu.sif

Apptainer ubuntu.sif:~> ls -lasd /data
4 drwxr-xr-x 2 user root 4096 Apr  9 10:21 /data

Apptainer ubuntu.sif:~> which vim

Apptainer ubuntu.sif:~> exit

If you mount your container without the --overlay directory, your changes will be gone.

$ apptainer shell ubuntu.sif

Apptainer ubuntu.sif:~> ls /data
ls: cannot access 'data': No such file or directory

Apptainer ubuntu.sif:~> which vim

Apptainer ubuntu.sif:~> exit

To resize an overlay, standard Linux tools which manipulate ext3 images can be used. For instance, to resize the 500MB file created above to 700MB one could use the e2fsck and resize2fs utilities like so:

$ e2fsck -f my_overlay && \
    resize2fs my_overlay 700M

Hints for creating and manipulating ext3 images on your distribution are readily available online and are not treated further in this manual.